Due to the fact that the device is a rather primitive sewage system, many feel that it is easy to create your own, without drawings and calculations. However, the completion of these modifications is extremely difficult. Therefore, it is best to perform on the paper quality design sewer, which will specify the length of pipe diameters, grades, and a list of materials is needed. The diameters of the pipes are caused by sanitary facilities will be connected to any to them. In a pipe which connects a sanitary device to the riser, the diameter cannot be less than the outlet of the device. If several devices are connected to one tube, it should not be less than the greater of the outlets.
When designing a sewer must take into account the sinks, bathtubs, sinks, shower trays, urinals, bidets, dishwashers, and washing machines can have a common connection to the riser. Toilets also need to separately connect to the riser (necessarily below the rest of the equipment). Otherwise, the water to be flushed down the toilet, the waste can flow through the holes in the other sanitary appliances.
Proper design of sewerage is impossible without taking into account the fact that the diameter of the pipe depends on the type and number of connected devices to them sanitary.
These diameters are determined empirically:
- for bidets and wash basins – 4cm,
- for baths and sinks – 5cm,
- to connect multiple downcomers, devices or waste holes without WC – diameter of 7cm,
- waste-holes, risers, WC – 10cm.
The design of sewerage systems should take into account the fact that the length of the toilet sewer connections must not be more than 1 meter, and to other devices – 3m. If the connection has a length greater than 3 m and a diameter of less than 7cm, it must have a diameter greater than the calculated one centimeter (for example, instead of 4 cm, make it 5). In the case where the diameter of the connection is 7cm, it should be increased to 10cm only if its length is greater than 5m. These recommendations should act when the height difference between the different endings connections of 1m-3m. If the connection is made with additional ventilation, the pipe diameter does not increase.
In the exercise of designing sewage pipes, you should be aware of the creation of the audit, through which it will be possible to clean the pipe. Those portions of the pipes that connect with the sanitary device with risers, it is necessary to conduct the shortest possible path. They should be attached to struts at an angle of more than 450 degrees between the riser and the toilet, it cannot connect other equipment as drains, which flow from the toilet for the entire cross section of the pipe. It can suck the water through a siphon of this equipment. In the case where the design requires sanitation realize bending of horizontal pipes, it is necessary to perform a bending at an angle of 900. Gravity sewage outside the home should provide biases pipes (1m pipe slope should be from 2% to 15%).
In private homes, they mainly use tubes made from polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride species polyester resins which are reinforced with fiberglass. All of the above materials are quite lightweight and corrosion-resistant processes, have a low roughness coefficient. They are much more brittle and rough than ceramic and metal pipes. However, they have a greater strength and resistance to high temperatures.
When they are combined with the compounds of the socket, possibly stretching compensated automatically (approximately 10mm / m). When this is not enough, the system is mounted compensator – straight pipe sections that can move relative to each other.